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Truly complete backup

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When booting Acronis on a USB stick, a full backup of my SSD containing 537 GB gives 310 GB of .tib files. This effectively allows a system restore.

Under Windows 10, an automatic (also full) backup only gives 125 GB of .tib files.
This is notoriously insufficient to contain all the files of my original SSD and therefore does not allow a restoration of the system.

Of course, the settings (essentially: default compression and exclusion of temporary files) were the same in both cases.

What is the way to have full and then incremental backups allowing in all cases the full restoration of the system? 

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Michel, welcome to these public User Forums.

When you make a backup using USB rescue media, did you actually set any exclusions or did you expect there to be defaults already set?

With rescue media, there are no default exclusions unless the user sets them manually, so there a number of things that would be included that the Windows ATI version would exclude by default.

These include the pagefile.sys, hiberfil.sys, swapfile.sys, System Volume Information folders (where Windows Protection stores restore point data) as well as any .tib files etc.

Both types of backup image should include everything necessary to do a full recovery to a new disk drive.  The pagefile etc are all created automatically by Windows.  Microsoft does not enable Windows Protection by default on any systems / upgrades since around #1703.