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When cloned, will fragmented source drive contents stay just as fragmented on target drive?

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I'm a new owner of True Image 2019 and illiterate about any of this, except I'd believed I could use Acronis to re-construct my older hard drive onto my brand new internal hard drive.  I'd made no preparation before moving the old drive physically into an external enclosure; it's merely available as a source via USB cable now. New virgin drive only has Windows10 Home edition installed plus a few 3rd party apps.  If I clone the older drive, will its fragmented source drive contents stay just as fragmented on the target drive?  Am I therefore better off just approaching the task as a "full backup" instead of a cloning?

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Donny & Susan, welcome to these public User Forums.

Sorry but questions need to be asked before can give you answers here!

First, how many computers are involved here?
Does your older hard drive come from the same physical computer where your new drive in now installed and has Windows 10 Home installed on?
What version of Windows is on your older hard drive, and is this also Windows 10 Home, or something different?

A Backup or Clone of a fragmented drive will both capture all the drive data 'as is' in that fragmented state, and any Recovery of that Backup, or Clone of the drive will reflect the same fragmented state.

Windows 10 Maintenance feature will normally do a regular defragmentation of your disk drive(s) without the need to run a separate defragmentation tool.  Older versions of Windows did not have this same maintenance feature so needed a tool such as Piriform Defraggler for this purpose.

Note: You cannot clone just your non-installed applications or user data from your old drive to the new one.  Both Cloning and Disk Backup take the whole drive contents and write these to the target drive, this will wipe clean any existing data on the target drive as the first action of the process.